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№ 2020/4

International economy


SHAPOVAL Yuliya Ihorivna1

1State Institution "Institute for Economics and Forecasting, NAS of Ukraine"

CENTRAL BANK DIGITAL CURRENCIES: EXPERIENCE OF PILOT PROJECTS AND CONCLUSIONS FOR THE NBU

Ekon. prognozuvannâ 2020; 4:103-121https://doi.org/10.15407/eip2020.04.103


ABSTRACT ▼

An overview of the definitions of central bank digital currency (CBDC), formulated by researchers of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the Bank of England, is presented, and the essence of the CBDC is revealed. It is stated that the existing electronic money is a digital form of obligations of financial intermediaries, and CBDC is a form of emission and obligations of central banks. The types and forms of CBDC are generalized, namely: retail or wholesale, account-based or token-based ones. The structure and functionality of the register, payment authentication, access to infrastructure, and governance are defined as factors taken into account during CBDC designing. Similar models of launching national CBDC by the Bank of England (economy-wide access or financial institutions access, and financial institutions plus CBDC backed narrow bank access) and BIS (direct, indirect, hybrid) are under consideration. The synthetic CBDCs are marked as a theoretical concept of CBDC. The overview of projects of the People's Bank of China – "e-renminbi", the Central Bank of the Uruguay – "e-peso", the Central Bank of the Bahamas – "sand dollar" and the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank affirm the interest of developing countries in launching national retail CBDCs. It was found that apart from the Riksbank with the successful "e-krona" project, most of the monetary authorities of developed countries (BIS, Bank of Japan, Bank of Canada, Deutsche Bank, FRS) are just planning or starting to experiment with the issuance of digital securities, which demonstrates their concern about the restructuring of the banking system and the changes of global role of traditional currencies. Among the positive consequences of the introduction of CBDC for the domestic banking system are the emergence of an alternative payment instrument, the implementation of effective monetary policy through increased influence on interest rates, and regulation of the legal regime of crypto currencies. At the same time, the introduction of CBDC involves certain changes in financial intermediation (replacement of the deposits of commercial banks with the CBDC, the performance of functions inherent to commercial banks by the central bank or fintech companies), and will require powerful technical capabilities, including those related to protection from cyber risks. The results of the study point to the need for a cautious approach to the implementation of the Ukrainian CBDC only after the NBU assesses the public demand for new forms of money and the impact of the launch of CBDC models on price and financial stability, and compares available payment technologies that can achieve the same goals as the CBDC.

Keywords:digital currency, central bank, emission, design, payments


JEL: E41, E42, E51, E58, G28, O31

Article in Ukrainian (pp. 103 - 121)

REFERENCES ▼